1.What is NSG?
The NSG is an international organisation that aims to control proliferation of nuclear weapons. This 48-member body was established to prevent civilian nuclear trade from being used for military purposes. It was formed by the signatories to the non-proliferation treaty (NPT). Though the NSG has been open to admitting new members to its clan, the group has so far opened its doors only to nations that are part of the NPT or Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). India has signed neither the NPT nor the CTBT.
2.Why was it formed and what was its objective?
The NSG was founded in reaction to the Indian nuclear test in May 1974. The main objective of the body, to begin with, was to make sure that the nuclear energy was used only for peaceful purposes and not for weapon-making.
India, Pakistan, Israel and South Sudan are among four UN member states which have not signed the NPT, the international pact aimed at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons.
Membership of NSG helps ease the transfer of technology, raw materials among the participant countries and US companies.
In 2008, the NSG participating governments agreed to grant India a “clean waiver” from its existing rules, which forbid nuclear trade with a country which has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
In November 2010, President Barack Obama announced US support to India’s participation in the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
In January 2015, during his India visit, Obama said that India was ready for the NSG membership.
China’s foreign ministry offered conditional support for Indian membership in the NSG.
Pakistan applied for the NSG membership in May 2016, probably to block India’s entry into the group.
At the same time, China has been lobbying for Pakistan’s entry into the group.